Florent Grasso

Florent Grasso

Researcher in coastal and estuarine sediment dynamics

Laboratoire de Dynamique Hydro-Sédimentaire (PDG-ODE-DYNECO-DHYSED)

Florent.Grasso@ifremer.fr

+33 (0)2 98 22 40 75

Fax : +33 (0)2 98 22 48 64

Employer : Ifremer

Site : Brest

Postal address : Centre Bretagne - ZI de la Pointe du Diable - CS 10070 - 29280 Plouzané

URL : https://annuaire.ifremer.fr/cv/18544/en/

ORCID orcid icon : 0000-0001-7679-8600

Present position

Associate Editor of Journal of Geophysical Research: Earth Surface


Web sites

Lab of hydrodynamics and sediment dynamics DHYSED


National and international programs

  • MORPHOSEINE project / Seine-Aval 6 reasearch programme (2017-2020): Numerical modelling of morphodynamics and sediment dynamics of the Seine Estuary (PI: F. Grasso - Ifremer).
  • ARES project / Seine-Aval 6 reasearch programme (2019-2020) : Analysis of hindcast numerical modelling of the Seine Estuary hydrodynamics and sediment dynamics (PI: F. Grasso - Ifremer).
  • PHARE-SEE project / Seine-Aval 6 reasearch programme (2017-2020): Microphytobenthic productivity of intertidal areas associated with sediment dynamics, biochemistry and ecosystem engineers of the Seine Estuary (PI: F. Orvain - BOREA, A. Huguet - METiS).
  • HYDRALAB+ /  H2020 European programme (2015-2019) / JRA1 RECIPE and JRA2 COMPLEX: WP9 Sediment-biota interactions (PI: F. Hamer - Deltares, A. Sanchez-Arcilla - PUC, S. McLelland - Hull University).
  • AMORAD project / ANR research programme "Investissement d'Avenir" (2013-2019): Improvement of radionuclides dispersion and impact assessment modelling in the environment (PI: J. Garnier-Laplace - IRSN).
  • HYMOSED project / Seine-Aval 5 reasearch programme (2013-2017): Numerical modelling of the HYdro-MOrpho-SEDiment dynamics of the Seine Estuary (PI: F. Grasso - Ifremer).
  • ANPHYECO-SEINE project / Seine-Aval 5 reasearch programme (2013-2017): Analysis of hydrological, morphological and sedimentological functioning of the Seine Estuary (PI: S. Van Damme - Antwerp University).
  • BARBèS project / Seine-Aval 5 reasearch programme (2013-2017): Biological association in relation with sediment transport: development of a new model of bioturbation caused by ecosystem engineers in Seine Estuary (PI: F. Orvain - BOREA).


Direction of oceanographic cruises

CruiseBoatDateGeographic coverage
METEOR 2017Cotes De L2017Embouchure de l'estuaire de la Gironde


Dataset

2021

Grasso Florent, Bocher Alan, Jacquet Matthias, Le Berre David, Lecornu Fabrice (2021). Gironde Estuary Mouth MEasurement Stations (GEMMES) . SEANOE . https://doi.org/10.17882/78968

2019

2018

Grasso Florent, Jacquet Matthias, Cugier Philippe, Carlier Antoine, Gaffet Jean-Dominique, Androuin Thibault (2018). Experimental study of sediment-biota interactions under wave-current conditions: Application to the ecosystem engineer species Crepidula fornicata . SEANOE . https://doi.org/10.17882/54774
Lamarque Bastien, Deflandre Bruno, Galindo Dalto Adriana, Schmidt Sabine, Romero-Ramirez Alicia, Garabetian Frédéric, Dubosq Nicolas, Diaz Mélanie, Grasso Florent, Sottolichio Aldo, Bernard Guillaume, Gillet Hervé, Cordier Marie-Ange, Poirier Dominique, Lebleu Pascal, Derriennic Hervé, Danilo Martin, Murilo Barboza Tenório Márcio, Grémare Antoine (2018). Spatial Distributions of Surface Sedimentary Organics and Sediment Profile Image Characteristics in a High-Energy Temperate Marine RiOMar: The West Gironde Mud Patch . SEANOE . https://doi.org/10.17882/78991


Bibliography

2021

Mengual Baptiste, Le Hir Pierre, Rivier Aurélie, Caillaud Matthieu, Grasso Florent (2021). Numerical modeling of bedload and suspended load contributions to morphological evolution of the Seine Estuary (France) . International Journal Of Sediment Research , 36(6), 723-735 . Publisher's official version : https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijsrc.2020.07.003 , Open Access version : https://archimer.ifremer.fr/doc/00642/75388/
Grasso Florent, Diaz Melanie, Bismuth Eliott, Verney Romaric, Le Hir Pierre, Sottolichio Aldo (2021). Investigating mud and sand fluxes between tidal estuaries and coastal seas: What can we learn from realistic process-based numerical modelling? INTERCOH 2021 - International conference on cohesive sediment transport. 13-17 september 2021, Delft, The Netherlands .
Diaz Melanie, Grasso Florent, Sottolichio Aldo, Le Hir Pierre, Caillaud Matthieu (2021). Investigating sediment budgets on a continental shelf sub-tidal mud patch under estuarine influence: a numerical model-ling analysis . ISOBAY 17 - XVII International Symposium on Oceanography of the Bay of Biscay. 1-4 June 2021, virtual event .
Lamarque Bastien, Deflandre Bruno, Galindo Dalto Adriana, Schmidt Sabine, Romero-Ramirez Alicia, Garabetian Frédéric, Dubosq Nicolas, Diaz Melanie, Grasso Florent, Sottolichio Aldo, Bernard Guillaume, Gillet Hervé, Cordier Marie-Ange, Poirier Dominique, Lebleu Pascal, Derriennic Hervé, Danilo Martin, Murilo Barboza Tenório Márcio, Grémare Antoine (2021). Spatial Distributions of Surface Sedimentary Organics and Sediment Profile Image Characteristics in a High-Energy Temperate Marine RiOMar: The West Gironde Mud Patch . Journal Of Marine Science And Engineering , 9(3), 242 (32p.) . Publisher's official version : https://doi.org/10.3390/jmse9030242 , Open Access version : https://archimer.ifremer.fr/doc/00681/79336/
Grasso Florent, Bismuth Eliott, Verney Romaric Unraveling The Impacts of Meteorological and Anthropogenic Changes on Sediment Fluxes Along an Estuary-Sea Continuum . Scientific reports IN PRESS . Publisher's official version : https://doi.org/10.21203/rs.3.rs-677174/v1 , Open Access version : https://archimer.ifremer.fr/doc/00709/82127/
Grasso Florent, Mengual Baptiste, Le Hir Pierre, Walther Régis, Verney Romaric (2021). MORPHOSEINE. Modélisation de l’évolution morphosédimentaire de l’estuaire de la Seine . Rapport de recherche du programme Seine-Aval 6 . https://archimer.ifremer.fr/doc/00684/79630/

2020

Grasso Florent, Bismuth Eliott, Verney Romaric (2020). ARES. Analyse de Rejeux hydro-sédimentaires en Estuaire de Seine . Rapport Projet Seine-Aval 6. https://archimer.ifremer.fr/doc/00664/77610/
Diaz Melanie, Grasso Florent, Le Hir Pierre, Sottolichio Aldo, Caillaud Matthieu, Thouvenin Benedicte (2020). Modeling mud and sand transfers between a macrotidal estuary and the continental shelf: influence of the sediment-transport parameterization . Journal Of Geophysical Research-oceans , 125(4), e2019JC015643 (37p.) . Publisher's official version : https://doi.org/10.1029/2019JC015643 , Open Access version : https://archimer.ifremer.fr/doc/00617/72897/
Thouvenin Benedicte, Grasso Florent, Le Hir Pierre, Orvain Francis, Plus Martin, Rakotomalala Christiane (2020). Modèle cross-shore 2DV hydro-sédimentaire et biogéochimique dans une vasière intertidale de l'estuaire de la Seine . Rapport intermédiaire PHARE-SEE. R.ODE/DYNECO/DHYSED 2020 .
Diaz Melanie, Grasso Florent, Le Hir Pierre, Caillaud Matthieu, Thouvenin Benedicte (2020). Numerical Modelling Of Sediment Exchanges From The Gironde Estuary To The Continental Shelf: Hydrodynamic Model Validation and Sensitivity Analysis Of Sediment Fluxes To Sediment Transport Parameters . Nguyen K., Guillou S., Gourbesville P., Thiébot J. (eds) Estuaries and Coastal Zones in Times of Global Change. Springer Water. Springer, Singapore. Print ISBN 978-981-15-2080-8 Online ISBN 978-981-15-2081-5. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-981-15-2081-5_21. Part. Modeling of Sediment Transport and Morphological Evolution in Estuaries. pp.355-377 .
Grasso Florent, Carlier Antoine, Cugier Philippe, Verney Romaric, Marzloff Martin Influence of Crepidula fornicata on suspended particle dynamics in coastal systems: a mesocosm experimental study . Journal of Ecohydraulics IN PRESS . Publisher's official version : https://doi.org/10.1080/24705357.2020.1834884 , Open Access version : https://archimer.ifremer.fr/doc/00662/77403/

2019

Grasso Florent, Mengual Baptiste, Le Hir Pierre, Lemoine Jean-Philippe, Caillaud Matthieu, Thouvenin Benedicte (2019). A retrospective numerical modelling analysis of the Seine Estuary (France) morphodynamics over the last 50 years . RCEM 2019 - 11th River, Coastal and Estuarine Morphodynamics Symposium. 16-21 November 2019, Auckland .
Diaz Melanie, Grasso Florent, Le Hir Pierre, Thouvenin Benedicte, Caillaud Matthieu (2019). Numerical modeling of sediment budgets in intertidal and subtidal mud flats of a macrotidal estuary and its adjacent coast: influence of hydro-meteorological and estuarine forcing . INTERCOH 2019 - 15th International Conference on Cohesive Sediment Transport Processes. 13-17 October 2019, Istanbul, Turkey .
Diaz Melanie, Grasso Florent, Le Hir Pierre, Caillaud Matthieu, Thouvenin Benedicte (2019). Accumulation and dispersion dynamics of mud and sand particles in a continental shelf under estuarine influence: a numerical modelling analysis (Gironde, France) . Advances in Coastal and Estuarine Physics from Nearshore to Continental-Margin Scales - Coastal Ocean Dynamics, Gordon Research Conference. 16-21 June 2019, Manchester, NH, USA . https://archimer.ifremer.fr/doc/00514/62559/
Grasso Florent, Le Hir Pierre (2019). Influence of morphological changes on suspended sediment dynamics in a macrotidal estuary: diachronic analysis in the Seine Estuary (France) from 1960 to 2010 . Ocean Dynamics , 69(1), 83-100 . Publisher's official version : https://doi.org/10.1007/s10236-018-1233-x , Open Access version : https://archimer.ifremer.fr/doc/00479/59046/
ICES (2019). Workshop on scoping of physical pressure layers causing loss of benthic habitats D6C1– methods to operational data products (WKBEDLOSS). ICES Scientific Reports/Rapports scientifiques du CIEM , 1(15), 37p. Publisher's official version : https://doi.org/10.17895/ices.pub.5138 , Open Access version : https://archimer.ifremer.fr/doc/00585/69712/

2018

Grasso Florent, Bocher Alan, Jacquet Matthias, Le Berre David, Lecornu Fabrice (2018). Observations of sediment suspension induced by waves, tides and internal waves in a shallow continental shelf under estuarine influence . PECS 2018 - Physics of Estuaries and Coastal Seas meeting 2018. October 15-19, 2018, Galveston, TX, USA .
Diaz Melanie, Grasso Florent, Le Hir Pierre, Caillaud Matthieu, Thouvenin Benedicte (2018). Modelling sediment exchanges between the Gironde Estuary and the adjacent continental shelf: sensitivity analysis of sediment fluxes to the sediment initialisation and parameterization . PECS 2018 - Physics of Estuaries and Coastal Seas meeting 2018. October 15-19, 2018, Galveston, TX, USA.
Lemoine Jean-Philippe, Le Hir Pierre, Grasso Florent (2018). Numerical study of sediment transport in the Seine estuary: contribution of dredging . Nguyen K., Guillou S., Gourbesville P., Thiébot J. (eds) Estuaries and Coastal Zones in Times of Global Change. Springer Water. Springer, Singapore. Print ISBN 978-981-15-2080-8 Online ISBN 978-981-15-2081-5. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-981-15-2081-5_21. Part. Modeling of Sediment Transport and Morphological Evolution in Estuaries. pp.241-255 .
Schulz Elisabeth, Grasso Florent, Le Hir Pierre, Verney Romaric, Thouvenin Benedicte (2018). Suspended Sediment Dynamics in the Macrotidal Seine Estuary (France) - Part 2: Numerical Modeling of Sediment Fluxes and Budgets Under Typical Hydrological and Meteorological Conditions . Journal Of Geophysical Research-oceans , 123(1), 578-600 . Publisher's official version : https://doi.org/10.1002/2016JC012638 , Open Access version : https://archimer.ifremer.fr/doc/00416/52772/
Grasso Florent, Verney Romaric, Le Hir Pierre, Thouvenin Benedicte, Schulz Elisabeth, Kervella Youenn, Fard I. Khojasteh Pour, Lemoine J. -P., Dumas Franck, Garnier Valerie (2018). Suspended Sediment Dynamics in the Macrotidal Seine Estuary (France) - Part 1: Numerical Modeling of Turbidity Maximum Dynamics . Journal Of Geophysical Research-oceans , 123(1), 558-577 . Publisher's official version : https://doi.org/10.1002/2017JC013185 , Open Access version : https://archimer.ifremer.fr/doc/00416/52770/

2017

Van Prooijen Bram, Grasso Florent, Le Hir Pierre, de Vet Lodewijk, Wang Zheng, Walles Branda, Ysebaert Tom (2017). Equilibria and Evolution of Estuarine Fringing Intertidal Mudflats . INTERCOH 2017- 14th International Conference on Cohesive Sediment Transport Processes. November 13-17, 2017, Uruguay.
Verney Romaric, Grasso Florent, Druine Flavie, Deloffre Julien, Lemoine Jean-Philippe (2017). Using real time monitoring networks for investigating sediment dynamics in estuaries: a step beyond turbidity time series analysis . INTERCOH 2017- 14th International Conference on Cohesive Sediment Transport Processes. November 13-17, 2017, Uruguay .
Le Hir Pierre, Lemoine Jean-Philippe, Grasso Florent, Thouvenin Benedicte (2017). Modelling morphodynamics in the sand/mud context of the Seine estuary mouth: methodology, validation and questions . INTERCOH 2017- 14th International Conference on Cohesive Sediment Transport Processes. November 13-17, 2017, Uruguay.
Grasso Florent, Le Hir Pierre, Chini Nicolas (2017). Diachronic numerical modelling of the turbidity maximum dynamics in the macrotidal Seine estuary (France) from 1960 to 2010 . INTERCOH 2017- 14th International Conference on Cohesive Sediment Transport Processes. November 13-17, 2017, Uruguay.
Lemoine Jean-Philippe, Le Hir Pierre, Grasso Florent (2017). Impacts of maintenance dredging on suspended sediment dynamics in the Seine estuary . INTERCOH 2017- 14th International Conference on Cohesive Sediment Transport Processes. November 13-17, 2017, Uruguay.
Grasso Florent, Le Hir Pierre (2017). Modélisation du fonctionnement HYdro-MOrpho-SEDimentaire de l’estuaire de la Seine [HYMOSED]. Volet « Modélisation » . Rapport final Seine-Aval 5 . https://archimer.ifremer.fr/doc/00412/52381/
Le Hir Pierre, Lemoine Jean-Philippe, Grasso Florent (2017). Modelling Morphodynamics in Mixed Sediment Environments: Management of the Morphological Factor Allowing Forcing Variability and Processes Inside the Sediment, Application to the Seine Estuary . RCEM 2017 - 10th Symposium on River, Coastal and Estuarine Morphodynamics. 15-22 september 2017, Padova, Italy .
Grasso Florent, Verney Romaric (2017). Modélisation du fonctionnement HYdro-MOrpho-SEDimentaire de l’estuaire de la Seine [HYMOSED] - Volet « Mesures» . Rapport final Seine-Aval 5 . https://archimer.ifremer.fr/doc/00414/52523/

2016

Brinkkemper J. A., Lanckriet T., Grasso Florent, Puleo J. A., Ruessink B. G. (2016). Observations of turbulence within the surf and swash zone of a field-scale sandy laboratory beach . Coastal Engineering , 113, 62-72 . Publisher's official version : https://doi.org/10.1016/j.coastaleng.2015.07.006 , Open Access version : https://archimer.ifremer.fr/doc/00277/38812/
Ruessink B. G., Blenkinsopp C., Brinkkemper J. A., Castelle B., Dubarbier B., Grasso Florent, Puleo J. A., Lanckriet T. (2016). Sandbar and beach-face evolution on a prototype coarse sandy barrier . Coastal Engineering , 113, 19-32 . Publisher's official version : https://doi.org/10.1016/j.coastaleng.2015.11.005 , Open Access version : https://archimer.ifremer.fr/doc/00299/40988/
Jaud Marion, Grasso Florent, Le Dantec Nicolas, Verney Romaric, Delacourt Christophe, Ammann Jerome, Deloffre Julien, Grandjean Philippe (2016). Potential of UAVs for Monitoring Mudflat Morphodynamics (Application to the Seine Estuary, France) . Isprs International Journal Of Geo-information , 5(4), - . Publisher's official version : https://doi.org/10.3390/ijgi5040050 , Open Access version : https://archimer.ifremer.fr/doc/00326/43721/
Grasso Florent, Schulz Elisabeth, Le Hir Pierre, Verney Romaric, Thouvenin Benedicte (2016). Influence des conditions hydrométéorologiques sur les flux et bilans sédimentaires en estuaire de Seine . XIVèmes Journées Nationales Génie Côtier – Génie Civil, 29 juin - 1er juillet 2016, Toulon. Ed.: D.Levacher, M. Sanchez et V.Rey . ISBN 978-2-35921-017-0. N°14 (2016), Thème 2 Dynamique sédimentaire pp.201-210 . https://archimer.ifremer.fr/doc/00348/45928/
Grasso Florent, Le Mercier Julien, Deloffre Julien, Verney Romaric, Jaud Marion, Le Dantec Nicolas, Delacourt Christophe, Ammann Jérôme, Grandjean Philippe (2016). Intertidal mudflat morphodynamics of a macrotidal estuary: a combined altimetric analysis based on local altimeters, terrestrial laser scanner and unmanned aerial vehicle . PECS2016 - 18th Physics of Estuaries and Coastal Seas Conference. October 9-14, 2016, The Nertherlands .

2015

Bacq Nicolas, Cugier Philippe, Grasso Florent, Le Gendre Romain, Le Hir Pierre, Lemoine Jean-Philippe, Riou Philippe, Schulz Elisabeth, Thouvenin Benedicte, Verney Romaric (2015). Modélisation environnementale de l'estuaire de la Seine . 3ème colloque Biennal des Zones Ateliers, 15-16 octobre 2015, Paris, France. https://archimer.ifremer.fr/doc/00284/39480/
Grasso Florent, Le Hir Pierre, Thouvenin Benedicte, Verney Romaric, Jestin Herve (2015). Mixed-sediment model performance to simulate erosion/deposition events in a macrotidal estuary mouth . Coastal Sediments 2015 : The Proceedings of the Coastal Sediments 2015. Edited by: Ping Wang, Julie D Rosati, Jun Cheng. ISBN: 978-981-4689-98-4 .
Grasso Florent, Le Hir Pierre, Bassoullet Philippe (2015). Numerical modelling of mixed-sediment consolidation . Ocean Dynamics , 65(4), 607-616 . Publisher's official version : https://doi.org/10.1007/s10236-015-0818-x , Open Access version : https://archimer.ifremer.fr/doc/00254/36539/

2014

Grasso Florent, Verney Romaric, Le Hir Pierre (2014). Numerical modelling of the turbidity maximum dynamics in a macrotidal estuary: sensitivity to hydrodynamic and hydrological forcing . Proceedings of the 17th Physics of Estuaries and Coastal Seas (PECS) conference, Porto de Galinhas, Pernambuco, Brazil, 19–24 October 2014 .
Grasso Florent, Le Hir Pierre, Bassoullet Philippe (2014). Analysis of mixed-sediment consolidation experiments . XIIIèmes Journée Nationales Génie Côtier - Génie Civil. 2014 Dunkerque. Ed.: D.Levacher, M. Sanchez, A. Hequette et Y. Lalaut. ISBN 978-2-35921-012-5. Thème 2 : Dynamique sédimentaire.pp.353-362 . https://archimer.ifremer.fr/doc/00206/31727/

2013

Grasso Florent, Le Hir Pierre, Bassoulet Philippe (2013). MODEL. Modélisation validée de l’hydro-morpho-sédimentologie base physique d’une modélisation environnementale de l’estuaire de la Seine. Rapport complémentaire . Rapport Seine-Aval 4 .
Dubarbier Benjamin, Castelle Bruno, Marieu Vincent, Michallet Hervé, Grasso Florent, Ruessink Gerben (2013). Numerical modelling of equilibrium and evolving lightweight sediment laboratory beach profiles. Proceedings on Coastal Dynamics 2013, pp.521-530 . https://archimer.ifremer.fr/doc/00180/29089/
de Winter Winnie, Wesselman Daan, Grasso Florent, Ruessink Gerben (2013). Large-scale laboratory observations of beach morphodynamics and turbulence beneath shoaling and breaking waves . Journal Of Coastal Research , Spec.Issue(65), 1515-1520 . https://doi.org/10.2112/SI65-256.1

2012

Grasso Florent, Ruessink B. G. (2012). Turbulent viscosity in natural surf zones . Geophysical Research Letters , 39(L23603), 1-5 . Publisher's official version : https://doi.org/10.1029/2012GL054135 , Open Access version : https://archimer.ifremer.fr/doc/00114/22512/
Ruessink B. G., Boers M., Van Geer P. F. C., de Bakker A. T. M., Pieterse A., Grasso Florent, de Winter R. C. (2012). Towards a process-based model to predict dune erosion along the Dutch Wadden coast . Netherlands Journal Of Geosciences-geologie En Mijnbouw , 91(3), 357-372 .
Grasso Florent, Castelle B., Ruessink B. G. (2012). Turbulence dissipation under breaking waves and bores in a natural surf zone . Continental Shelf Research , 43, 133-141 . https://doi.org/10.1016/j.csr.2012.05.014

2011

Michallet H., Cienfuegos R., Barthelemy E., Grasso Florent (2011). Kinematics of waves propagating and breaking on a barred beach . European Journal Of Mechanics B-fluids , 30(6), 624-634 . https://doi.org/10.1016/j.euromechflu.2010.12.004
Grasso Florent, Michallet H., Barthelemy E. (2011). Sediment transport associated with morphological beach changes forced by irregular asymmetric, skewed waves . Journal Of Geophysical Research-oceans , 116, - . Publisher's official version : https://doi.org/10.1029/2010JC006550 , Open Access version : https://archimer.ifremer.fr/doc/00092/20341/
Grasso Florent, Michallet H., Barthelemy E. (2011). Experimental simulation of shoreface nourishments under storm events: A morphological, hydrodynamic, and sediment grain size analysis . Coastal Engineering , 58(2), 184-193 . https://doi.org/10.1016/j.coastaleng.2010.09.007
Grasso Florent, Ruessink B. G. (2011). Vertical structure of the turbulence dissipation rate in the surf zone . Journal Of Coastal Research , 90-94 .

2010

Castelle Bruno, Marieu Vincent, Bonneton Philippe, Bruneau Nicolas, Grasso Florent (2010). Modélisation des évolutions de profil de plage . Houille Blanche-revue Internationale De L Eau , (1), 104-110 . https://doi.org/10.1051/lhb/2010012

2009

Grasso Florent, Michallet H., Barthelemy E., Certain R. (2009). Physical modeling of intermediate cross-shore beach morphology: Transients and equilibrium states . Journal Of Geophysical Research-oceans , 114, - . Publisher's official version : https://doi.org/10.1029/2009JC005308 , Open Access version : https://archimer.ifremer.fr/doc/00092/20345/
Berni C., Mignot E., Michallet H., Dalla-Costa C., Grasso Florent, Lagauzere M. (2009). Diversity of bed evolution at wave and tidal scales on Truc-Vert beach . Journal Of Coastal Research , 1726-1730 .
Grasso Florent, Michallet H., Certain R., Barthelemy E. (2009). Experimental Flume Simulation of Sandbar Dynamics . Journal Of Coastal Research , 54-58 .

2007

Michallet H., Grasso Florent, Barthelemy E. (2007). Long Waves and Beach Profile Evolutions . Journal Of Coastal Research , 221-225 .


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